Recent Updates

  1. A History of Packaging

    Very early in time, food was consumed where it was found. Families and villages were self-sufficient, making and catching what they used. When containers were needed, nature provided gourds, shells and leaves to use. Later, containers were fashioned from natural materials, such as hollowed logs, woven grasses and animal organs.
  2. Powdery Mildew of Greenhouse-grown Lettuce

    Powdery mildew is a common fungal disease encountered in greenhouse production of lettuce. Many growers struggle with controlling the disease on lettuce crops grown in protected environments, especially during the fall and winter months. This fact sheet details the causal pathogen, favorable environmental factors and recommendations for control for greenhouse producers. 
  3. Chlorinated Water Sanitation of Leafy Green Vegetables For Fresh Produce Processors

    Following harvest, leafy green vegetables are treated with sanitizers to reduce bacteria that have come in contact with the produce prior to or during harvesting, and to prevent cross-contamination. Although several liquid sanitizers that could be used to decrease bacterial load—including chlorine dioxide, ozone and peroxyacetic acid—chlorinated water is the frequently used sanitizer in the fresh produce industry. Chlorinated water treatment is cost-effective and easiest to manage among all of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approved sanitizers for fresh produce.
  4. Ohio Farm Custom Rates 2016

    Farming is a complex business and many Ohio farmers utilize outside help for specific farm-related work. This option is appealing for tasks requiring specialized equipment or technical expertise. Often, having someone else with specialized tools perform a task is more cost effective and saves time. Farm work completed by others is called “custom farm work” or more simply, “custom work.” A “custom rate” is the amount agreed upon by both parties to be paid by the custom work customer to the custom work provider.
  5. Creative Leadership in 4-H—Flatwater Kayaking

    Over the past 20 years, kayaking has emerged as one of the most popular outdoor recreation activities in America. In response to this popular trend, 4-H camping programs have added this option to their recreation portfolios. Due to a shortage of certified instructors, many 4-H camps are teaching kayaking with lesser qualified staff. This presents concerns about participant safety, quality of learning, and user enjoyment. This fact sheet provides a stop-gap training option for creatively engaging participants in 4-H kayaking instruction.
  6. Veterinary Feed Directive (VFD) for 4-H Youth Livestock Producers and Families

    What is a VFD? A VFD is a written (nonverbal) statement issued by a licensed veterinarian that authorizes the use of an approved VFD drug or combination VFD drug in or on an animal feed. This written statement authorizes the client (owner of the animal) to obtain and use animal feed bearing or containing a VFD drug or combination VFD drug to treat the client’s animals only in accordance with the conditions for use approved by the FDA (Food and Drug Administration). 
  7. Creative Leadership in 4-H—Stand Up Paddle Boarding

    Stand up paddle boarding (SUP) is one of the fastest growing outdoor recreation activities in America. In response to this popular trend, 4-H camping programs have added this option to their recreation portfolios. Due to a shortage of certified SUP instructors, most 4-H camps are teaching SUP with lesser-qualified instructors. This presents concerns about participant safety, quality of learning, and user enjoyment.  This fact sheet provides a stop-gap training option for creatively engaging participants in 4-H SUP instruction.
  8. Storing Corn Stover for Biobased Industries

    Crop residues are an important category of lignocellulosic biomass, a renewable feedstock source for biobased energy and other products. In the Midwestern United States, corn stover is abundant and thus the most likely agricultural residue to be used for biobased industries. Currently, it is the primary feedstock choice of first generation cellulosic biorefineries, including POET-DSM’s Project Liberty and DuPont’s Cellulosic Ethanol plant, both in Iowa.
  9. Interpreting Manure Sample Test Results

    Applying the appropriate amount of manure requires correct interpretation of the manure test results. Moisture and nutrient levels on the test results need to match the crop’s nutrient needs. Under-application of manure will not meet the crop’s needs and over-application may allow excess nutrients to escape into ground or surface water resources. This fact sheet focuses on interpreting test results from manure samples. 
  10. Cool-Season Turfgrasses for Sports Fields and Recreational Areas

    Selection of the proper turfgrass species is one of the most important decisions to be made when establishing a playing surface or recreational area. Since the turf is meant to be permanent, it is important to select a grass species adapted to the area and to the intended level of management. The most important criteria when selecting grass species for recreational areas can be summarized as:

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